This lesson describes a general procedure that can be used to test statistical hypotheses. The researcher states a __hypothesis__ to be tested, formulates an analysis plan, analyzes sample data according to the plan, and accepts or rejects the null __hypothesis__, based on results of the analysis. (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) IV only (E) V only Solution The correct answer is (E). Once a scientist has a scientific question she is interested in, the scientist reads up to find out what is already known on the topic. A *hypothesis* is a tentative, testable answer to a scientific question.

## Stating the hypothesis

If you learn these five basic steps, it will help you greatly in **hypothesis** testing. Now let's go through the five steps for our gas prices example.

Sometimes people refer to the tentative answer as "an educated guess." Keep in mind, though, that the

hypothesisalso has to be testable since the next step is to do an experiment to determine whether or not thehypothesisis rht!

### Stating the hypothesis

#### Stating the hypothesis

The films producers wonder how many times a product must be seen in the picture to make an impact on the viewer. At this point, don't worry if the general procedure for testing hypotheses seems a little bit unclear. The P-value is the probability of observing a sample statistic as extreme as the test statistic.

We have already done each of these steps, but now we are doing them more explicitly in terms of the stages. HOW TO WRITE A GORY STORY Kristin says: "This statement may or may not be true, but it is not a scientific *hypothesis*. There are no observations that a scientist can make to tell whether or not the *hypothesis* is correct.

Stating the hypothesis:

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